I understand a polity is ‘a form or process of civil government or constitution.’ but I need to confirm, that when referring to ancient civilizations, there would be many different polities, and polity doesn’t refer to the civilization as a whole.

As a follow up are there any modern day polities or would they be described as something else?

(Distance education learner – and text books aren’t clear)

Sometime in the past i’ve seen a paper with a certain citation style and i’m looking to find it’s name. Unfortunately I couldn’t find it myself by googling, so i’m trying my luck here.

It looked like this:


Paragraph Headline

[12] [3] [18]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua. At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.


With [12] etc. appearing only in the bibliography, not in the text. Is this a legit citation style and does anyone know it’s name?

If not, what would be a similar solution? My issue is, that in some paragraphs, I want to cite only from a few selected sources, and I don’t want to clutter my text with the same citation appearing over and over again..

I have been working with 2 faculty members on the same project. I took a class from each of them, and the three of us meet in person on a weekly basis. I think it’s reasonable to assume that they’ve seen the same level of research ability from me.

I am planning on applying to graduate school, so I was wondering if it’s appropriate to ask them for a joint letter? My motivation behind this is

  • the two of them mentor me on the same project, so 2 separate letters may have unnecessary overlap?
  • applications typically require 3 letters (I already have 2). For schools which you can submit > 3 letters, I would think they still value quality > quantity
  • may be slightly less work for both of them (?)

I don’t want to come off rude by asking the two of them to co-write a letter of recommendation for me. Is it generally deemed appropriate to ask two faculty members to do this? I think this is quite uncommon because on applications I only get to designate one writer per letter of recommendation (i.e. provide just one name, his/her title, email, phone, etc). If so, how should I phrase the question of asking both of them to co-write a strong letter of rec for me?

I posted a highly-upvoted answer on Skeptics Stack Exchange based upon numerous Chronicling America database newspaper quotations, and chatted in comments about this with a psychology professor.

The professor, listing himself as sole author, then submitted an article with highly overlapping content to a peer reviewed journal, without any citation to my Stack Exchange answer.

Is this ethical? I’ve only published in chemistry/biochemistry journals and don’t have any idea what is typical for psychology journals.

A few years ago I worked in a lab as a visiting researcher (something like internship). As the result, I had to write a short report which at that moment didn’t look like a proper paper.
Recently I’ve discovered that my supervisor literally 3 months after my leave decided to present a conference paper with the results of, well, our work (at least I think that these two documents contain the same idea).

I do prefer to keep my old works and emails so that I can always check and find something. It seems that I sent a copy to my supervisor and the paper was submitted approximately one month later.

Since it’s not so common, I’ve asked my former supervisor already and I’ve got a reply “What are you talking about?”. Now I’m confused and feel a bit stupid because I might be wrong as well.

I’ve checked related questions:
Is it plagiarism for my thesis advisor to publish a paper using content from my thesis without citation?
What should I do if my master's advisor used a figure from my thesis in a publication without citation or acknowledgment?
and I need to clarify my problem a bit. The idea of the project came from my supervisor, I was needed as a person to read a lot of papers and to do a lot of routine calculations (6 months(!)).

Is there anything I can do now? It’s not like I care now about a conference paper, however, at that moment I was looking for a PhD position and all professors kept asking me about my publications and results of my internship.
And I’ve sent that letter already.

My paper was accepted at a good conference after 3 reviewers cleared it. After proof reading for the publishing, I sent it to the editor with approval.
However, now I have realised that there are 2 mistakes in the paper: 1. One of the equations dependent on time is using t instead of t+1 2. One of the equations is using best instead of best_i.

The editor has told me that the paper has been sent already for printing, and nothing can be done anymore. Can someone suggest what might be the best course of action now?

I asked a professor for a PhD position, and he said that he dont have an open PhD position, but i can go there as a self-funded visiting scientist. As i am from middle-east, and this university is in Europe, it is very hard for me financially and i have to ask my family to support me. so, i want to be sure that i can start a paid PhD after being there as a visiting scientist.
please help me to use appropriate word to impress the professor and he give me a promise that I can start a PhD position there.

I am in the process of trying to formulate my statement of purpose/intent for a PhD in criminal justice. I’m not sure how to go about this when I have two distinctly different areas that I’m very interested in. The first is wildlife crime (falls into conservational criminology, a very new field) and the other is biosocial criminology/mental illness. These are not related to each other in any way, but I’m fascinated by both.

There are a lot more schools that have faculty working on biosocial than wildlife crime. However, I have found one school that has one professor working in wildlife crime, and the rest working on mental-illness-related issues. I don’t know what to do. Should I write two different SOPs and submit them to the appropriate school? One for wildlife and one for biosocial?

When my past professors ask me for my research interests, I want to mention both of these, but I don’t want them to think I’m unfocused. I am going to a criminology conference in November, and I will be talking to the professors who are writing my letters of recommendation. Should I tell them everything I’m interested in or narrow down one specific thing?