I know that title of my question may sound a little ambiguous. Let me give a background about myself. I am currently in senior year of B.Math program at a fairly prestigious international institution. I do intend to do a PhD later in top 6 graduate schools in US. I am interested in Langlands Program and Automorphic forms. I am more interested in University of Chicago as they seem to have a strong group in this area. While my program is quite strong and challenging it doesn’t really cover much depth. Hence I have selected two masters program.

University of Bonn MSc & University of Cambridge Mast (Part III).

Their are certain issues with taking part III.

  1. My undergraduate degree concludes in May while Cambridge doesn’t start its term till October. That means I will have to apply for Junior Research fellow somewhere possibly in my country.

  2. There will be a huge deadline problem. US admission deadlines are usually in December. Neither I would have my part III results nor references letter from Cambridge. I could apply for the next cycle and again hang around somewhere as a junior fellow for atleast nine months.

  3. In my whole B.Math I have never done any research. I have been quite busy with the courses. I guess the situation won’t change that much in Cambridge. How do graduate admissions committee view this?

    I am also considering Bonn for my masters. The courses will be little less challenging but I give gain some research experience in form of thesis. And there will be no deadline problem in Bonn. Also Bonn has better langlands program group then Cambridge (Scholze,Rapoport).
    Bonn in probably the best place in Europe to do that kind of research. However not on a Master’s Level.

Finally I want to know how will graduate admissions committee view the following two candidates :

A. B.Math + Part III (Cambridge) with top grades and no research experience.

B. B.Math + MSc (Bonn) with top grades and some research experience.

Will the former given more preference then the latter?

Let me explain:
Recently, I wrote a long document with references that I omitted to quote. Now I’m completely confused because I can’t find a way to find the origins of these references.

I must cite every quotation I have mentioned in my document. Which is a tedious thing, given the plethora of reference available.

Question:
I kindly request, dear readers, to provide me with your tips and tricks on how to reference a document in math. You do this at the end of the writing process or as you write.

Any help is welcome.

Some time ago a professor gave me a small mathematics problem for independent research. While doing reading for this problem I found a substantially different but not unrelated problem mentioned in one of the professor’s papers. I did this problem instead.

I would have thought that this means that I picked the problem myself from a paper suggested by the professor, but the professor says that s/he “gave” the problem to me because that’s how people see it in Mathematics. This sounds strange to me, and if that’s what the professor wants, fine. But I’m wondering if this really is normal in Mathematics.

I am a international applicant. I study in fairly less prestigious undergraduate school. I am aware that this will have a affect on my Grad School Applications. Since I am freshman I was wondering of how I can minimize the disadvantage. I do think of four possible ways:

  1. Taking toughest courses possible:
    My school is kind of a unique model. It has very less permanent faculties. It usually borrows Math professors from other institutions in my country which sort of have a international reputation. They usually offer grad level courses known as electives. I do have the option of taking as many of them. I won’t run out of these courses. However the undergrad transcript will not show the name of professor under which the class was taken. I am kind of skeptical how admission committee will judge these courses just by looking at name of undergraduate institution.

  2. Amazing letters of recommendation :
    Since good and internationally known faculty take courses at my school I do hope to get recommendations from them. This should
    help but I am not sure how much.?

  3. Budapest semester in mathematics and IMC :
    I am sure BSM will help however will doing really good in IMC make my application better ?

  4. Good honors thesis:
    I do have the option of completing my honors thesis abroad at a different institution. Usually honors thesis don’t contain publishable material however that’s a matter of hard work. It won’t be published before the application deadline but will a letter from advisor highlighting the work and results of my thesis do any good ?

Even if I check each one of the above box’s how worthy and comparable my application will be to those from the very best undergrad schools ?

Finding jobs for Ph.D graduate in mathematics is the main concern. Available options are namely in general industry and academia. I see, for instance, some Ph.D in math (algebraic geometry) working in Bank sector! This incompatibility
between field of study and job might back to the rank of math department of graduated person.
There maybe exists some other reasons. But I want to know about the upper bound of ranks of departments might be considered as top ranks? Additionally, which university ranking is most reliable in industry sector and in academia?

I’m looking for good hints for my professional life.

I am a mathematician (32 years old) who worked up to now in academia in Europe.
My short CV: PhD + three and a half years of postdoctoral fellowships.
Domain of expertise: dynamical systems / ergodic theory (no applied math).

It’s been some time that I have been losing progressively motivation for research, I do not manage to obtain a permanent position and I start wondering what I could do elsewhere with my expertise (besides teaching, which is of course a possibility).

However I fear that I’m too “specialized” in my domain and I don’t feel adapted for the industry. I have some programming skills, but not enough in my opinion to work in a big data company.

Do you know some examples of mathematicians who found their way in industry with a 100% academic CV like mine? And where? In which areas? Do companies hire mathematicians with no experience outside academics? Do they invest in people with pure-theoretical background and competences?