The W2 professorship ads of all universities of applied sciences in Germany have a passage requring (e.g., for Bavaria)

darüber hinaus besondere Leistungen bei der Anwendung oder Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Methoden in einer mindestens fünfjährigen beruflichen Praxis, die nach Abschluss des Hochschulstudiums erworben sein muss und von der mindestens drei Jahre außerhalb des Hochschulbereichs ausgeübt worden sein müssen; […] der Nachweis der außerhalb des Hochschulbereichs ausgeübten beruflichen Praxis kann in besonderen Fällen dadurch erfolgen, dass über einen Zeitraum von mindestens fünf Jahren ein erheblicher Teil der beruflichen Tätigkeit in Kooperation zwischen Hochschule und außerhochschulischer beruflicher Praxis erbracht wurde.

It roughly means that you have to have worked on applying your knowledge and scientific methods 5 years after graduation, 3 of which outside of academia, or, in special cases, a minimum of 5 years most of the time in cooperation between non-academic industry and academia. Regulations in other federal states are similar.

Considering the second passage, what counts (and what does not count) as such a collaboration? E.g., does working 5 years long at a research university on BMBF-financed projects with industrial partners counts?

What I mean is, are there cases in which a professor might decline writing are letter of recommendation for a PhD program, but would accept writing such a letter for a student applying to a MA or MPhil programme? Is the professor seen as vouching for the student more, when he writes a letter for a PhD program than when we’re talking about MA or MPhil programs? Or is there virtually no difference?

There is a professor in Department X. I will be applying to Department Y & Department Z for a MA that really fits my interests. Now, I am wondering whether the professor in Department X will also hold classes in Department Y & Z, or whether these classes are shared and accessible over multiple departments anyways (how does this usually work in the UK? I don’t really know). How do I ask him this question, how do I best phrase it? I am a bit unsure about this. Right now I have

I am currently thinking of applying for X at Uni X, and am wondering whether I could then attend your courses too?

  • but it sounds a bit strange to me? (English is not my native language)

My references for my graduate program applications include an adjunct professor and an industry professional (both not very academic) and I am not sure if they really have time to invest in writing the recommendations for me, although I am pretty sure they will write for me if I asked them to.

I heard that often time the reference would ask the students to draft the letter before they even edit and send away online because they are usually busy and really don’t give a damn on your application or simply because they haven’t written any recommendation before. So I wonder if it is okay to just ask in the first place something like “I can also draft the letters for you if you don’t have time (Are there better ways to express this request?)” when I reach out to my references to write the recommendations for me?

Another good thing about this is I can basically write in a way that includes what I think the admission committee would consider valuable in my letter. I mean, after all, I know about my program much better than my references, and I know how to better phrase my experience to make them relevant.

I am in community college, and I emailed my calc prof a few days ago asking if he could give me a LoR so I can transfer.

I’m not close to him on a personal level, but he knows who I am and I have been involved in the class (going to office hours, attending review sessions, sitting in the front, etc.) I also gotta B in his class. I mean I could go ask one of my English profs, but as a Comp Sci major I feel asking a math prof would be best. Plus he knows this is my second attempt at Calculus.

The very main reason why I am asking him is because he is an alum to the school I want to transfer to, and which I am asking a LoR to. But also, he is the only prof that I have been somewhat willingly involved in the class.

He hasn’t responded to my email for a few days, should I give it more time? He has office hours tomorrow, but I don’t want to take it away from the students using it for review for our finals next week. Should I wait till after finals to follow up? This isn’t a university I’m at, it’s only community college so like the classes aren’t that big, so he know who I am and stuff. It’s not even due until June 1st, but the admissions is rolling admissions so it’s not the decisions are all out at once. So I just think I’ll set the due date to a month whenever after he agrees to do it.

I’ve never done this before so I have no idea any criterias or anything. I just know that I should give him a decent amount of time, and have been told about a month seems reasonable.

I am accepted for the January intake.I am a fully funded student.
I received the acceptance letter from university but the university has not sent me any financial support letter.
My supervisor just sent me a letter of financial support.
A financial support at $22K per year from which $15K comes from Supervisor’s grant money
and the rest from internal funding available to the graduate students in our faculty in form of research and
teaching assistantships.

Is it enough to have a financial letter from the supervisor? or Should I send the university an email and ask them to send a letter of the financial letter?

because on my personal university portal there is not any section for funding.
what should I do before starting my study? since it is really important to finance my study form very beginning. what should I write to the university and what should I ask?

Thanks in advance!

Forgot to mention supervisor’s name in the thesis(due to pressure) and submitted it and got an A for it. Can I be accused of plagiarism at a later date, if this professor wishes to push it forward? This professor was my thesis advisor or guide.There were some portions of the thesis which we both worked on it and some portion was mine. I missed the acknowledgment section

I am a PhD student majoring in Biochemistry. Three years ago, my boss solved the structure of protein A, but could not get it published due to the lack of biochemical study. Around that time, two papers studying the biochemical characteristics of the protein A were published. Therefore, my boss though that he needs to look for different interesting features of the protein that are different from the previous studies in order to get it publish. He came up with a hypothesis and asked a post doc in the lab working to validate his hypothesis.

When I joined the lab two years ago, my boss asked me to take over the project since the post doc which was working on the project quitted. I took time to do research on the project and found out that the hypothesis is unreasonable in my opinion. Since I just joined the lab and a newbie in the field, my friend told me that I should follow my boss since he has more time and experience than me. I decided to follow his instruction to validate the hypothesis. Another problem emerged was that it is very difficult to prove his hypothesis experimentally. I could not find any experimental methods from previous studies that I could apply to my experiment to validate the hypothesis. Instead of wasting more time to think about the project, my boss urged me to follow his experimental design. Even though his design was not perfect, as he discussed with me, he said that at least I would get some preliminary data. I spent two years to finish the experiment and get the preliminary data (I need to set up the experiment from the beginning and that is the reason why it took two years). The data could not give me a reasonable answer for the problem since I mentioned that the experiments was not well-designed. However, the data pointed out that his hypothesis was not true or at least, the experimental approach I was using showed that.

My boss was at first skeptical about my data and my skills. He asked me to repeat the experiment many more times (another reason why it took two years to finish), but the data were consistent (Thank god!!!). Finally, he told me that he had a different hypothesis based on my preliminary data. This hypothesis reverses the previous one and I am not so excited about his new hypothesis (of course I did not let him know what I was thinking). However, he asked another student to take over this project to validate his new hypothesis. The problem is that he didn’t give me a new project. He wanted me to only prepare the materials for this project and another student will perform the assay. During the last two years, there were a couple of things happened such as sometimes my experiments failed since I forgot some components, or my standard deviation was high, that made my boss was unhappy with me. I felt that my boss did not trust me and right now, what he did to me made me strongly believe that he does not trust me in doing experiment. I was very disappointed thinking that how can I thrive in the lab when my boss does not trust me. Right now, I don’t have a project and what my boss wants me to do is to help around with material preparation. I still have not talked to my boss about my feeling. I am thinking about switching the lab (I am in the third years) and here are some pros and cons that I am contemplating:


  1. I learnt a lot of thing from my boss during the last two years and I think that I will betray him if I leave the lab.
  2. I don’t want to burn the bridge, but definitely, the bridge will be burnt. I am worry that he will get angry with me and tell bad things about me to other people.
  3. He supported me as a RA from his funding for 1 year and I feel bad if I leave without giving him anything back (good result to publish a paper).
  4. This is a new lab and he has money to support for new, risky research. My boss is willing to try new techniques for which I can expand my knowledge from that.
  5. This may affect my initial plan of graduation.


  • I felt death inside when thinking about the way my boss treated me and it affected my performance recently. If I change the lab, I think I can have a new life and a new journey. In other words, I will get better feelings and may help to push my performance. Yes, better feeling is only the thing I can think of. Of course, I don’t know whether new lab and new project will end up in similar situation. However, I think at least, I have the belief from my new boss.

Please give me advice whether I should switch the lab or just follow what my boss wants me to do.

Forgot to mention supervisor’s name in the thesis(due to pressure) and submitted it and got an A for it. Can I be accused of plagiarism at a later date, if this professor wishes to push it forward? This professor was my thesis advisor or guide.There were some portions in the thesis which we both worked on it and some portion were mine