I don’t know a lot about the scientific research and its concepts. What is the difference between this book and any research paper?

From my understanding of the research world, I know that link.springer is a journal and journals publish research papers after reviewing. If that is the case, then what is that book doing in link.springer? Is it really just a book? or Do people call it “published book”?

At my undergraduate university, one could earn three types of honors that are designated on your diploma:

  • Departmental Honors, where the requirements are set by the department, usually involving a thesis.
  • Interdisciplinary Honors, which involved an interdisciplinary curriculum of about 45 credits (nine classes). In my opinion, it was a valuable program.
  • College Honors, which is what you get when you do both.

I earned College Honors, for both doing a bachelor’s thesis and completing the interdisciplinary requirements.

Would graduate schools know what it means if I put “with College Honors” on my resume/application? I assume not, but Latin honors seem to be common enough. Is it worth explaining? Or should I just designate them both and not even bother with the “College Honors” phrasing?

I’m not an American, but I know that the number 101, often used postpositively, is used to mean fundamentals/rudiments of a particular scholarly subject. I know (partially as a hunch but I also looked it up) this is because introductory courses in American, or maybe North American college are given the number 101.

But now I want to know a bit more about this numbering system, because I was watching a video called: Chemistry 107. Inorganic Chemistry, and I wondered exactly how far along or advanced this is? Is it guaranteed that there are 5 other courses between 101 and 107 that are intermediate between these?

The only information I got from Wikipedia was that:

This common numbering system was designed to make transfer between
colleges easier.

So if anyone has gone through an education of this numbering system, could you explain roughly how this is arranged? Is Chemistry 107 really far ahead, and does it mean that there are 5 previous courses before it?

And here is the video in case it helps in answering my question.

At Uppsala universitet there are currently open positions as mathematics postdoc and as researchers. The announcement texts are identical, aside from this part (and clarification on it) that is missing from the researcher position:

To be eligible for a position as postdoctoral researcher the applicant’s PhD degree must have been obtained no more than three years prior to the application date; however, for example periods of sick leave or parental leave are deducted from the three-year period.

What is the difference between researcher and postdoc in the Swedish system in general, or Uppsala university in specific?

This journal issue has contents that are grouped as “article” or “monographic section”. What’s the difference between these two sections?

I checked the dictionary definition of monograph: “a highly detailed and thoroughly documented study or paper written about a limited area of a subject or field of inquiry“, but can’t we say the same about the regular articles in this journal? Why do some texts get classified in “article” and some in “monographic section”? To make it more confusing there is also a “Miscellaneous” section in that issue, and I have no idea why it was considered so versus the other texts.

All PhD students are getting their PhD from a university (as far as I know).

  1. But some PhD students follow a PhD program that is just a standard program at their department (e.g. department of math, or physics, or sociology), do research under a supervisor who is just affiliated with the department. The supervisor may also be affiliated with research institutes, but the relation between the PhD student and the supervisor is not created via, or dependent on, or related to those research institutes: the relation is solely based on the fact that the PhD student and supervisor are affiliated with the same department.

  2. Then there are PhD students, who (though they are of course also affiliated to a department) are enrolled into a PhD position that is specifically affiliated with a research institute. For example, there may be a research institute that is affiliated with university X, all researchers there are affiliated with X, but it is a somewhat separate institute. The PhD student would be specifically linked to that institute, rather than merely to his department.

Are there generally accepted terms that distinguish between these two types of PhD positions?